All posts by Luan Ochia

I’m an Economist working in a multinational bank and a recently-licensed Sunlife financial advisor. My financial independence journey began when I read Robert Kiyosaki’s Rich Dad, Poor Dad ten years ago, when I graduated from college. Since then, I’ve decided to save aside a portion of my salary, no matter how small so I can start investing and building my asset portfolio. I opened my first mutual fund account in Sunlife in 2009, my stock trading account in BPI Securities in 2010. To further guide me in stock investing, I also subscribe to Bo Sanchez’s truly rich club.

Free Financial Planning for Individuals or Companies

As a financial advisor, it’s our responsibility to draft a financial road map for our clients that will lead them towards financial independence. It doesn’t end with simply buying insurance to protect one’s family from unforeseen circumstances. It also involves creating a budget, a savings and investment plan for future needs such as education, retirement, and even estate planning.

You save for short term needs but for your long term goals like retirement and educational expenses for your children, you have to put your money in assets that not only beat inflation but provide high returns (stocks, mutual funds, etc).

If you want your children to go to the top tier schools, you have to INVEST because tuition fees increase by an average of 10-12% per year.  Compound that with the number of years you have to wait before your child goes to college and you have six to seven digits figure that you need to save up for.  You can’t merely put your money in a time deposit because their 1-2% return will just lose to the annual rate increase for tuition fees.

If you want to retire comfortably, you also have to save up for that.  I say save up but I’m actually saying you have to invest long term.  What a comfortable retirement is varies per person.  For some that requires P30,000 pesos to live on every month for your living expenses, others probably would want to live on P50,000 – P100,000 thousands per month.  Multiply that with 12 months in a year and just to be conservative, by 20 more years if you’re female since we have a longer life expectancy, and you get a whopping seven or eight digit figure.  Retirement is expensive yet most of us fail to plan for it. That’s why when you start working, you have to build your financial freedom account very early.  I started mine when I was 24 years old. That was when I opened my first mutual fund accounts with Sun Life Asset Management Inc and First Metro Investments (a Metrobank subsidiary) and so far, I’m very happy with the returns.  I’ve now diversified into stock trading and have created a personalized investment plan for myself so that when my husband and I retire, we don’t need to depend on our children or anyone.

Admittedly, I don’t know much about estate planning, because for one, I don’t have an estate and I still have a few decades ahead of me.  I still can’t compute the taxes due but that’s easy to learn since the BIR has a matrix for that.  For those who don’t know, an estate is simply everything you own. These are the properties you divide and give to your children in your last will and testament.  Yes, the government taxes you for the properties you bequeath to your children.  All I know about estate planning is that you can use life insurance to pay off your estate taxes.  How? Your life insurance should be equal to the amount that you need to pay off for your estate taxes.   Normally when someone dies we get billed for medical and burial expenses. But if you have life insurance, the insurance company issues you a check to your family so that when you die, they have something to pay off outstanding debts, expenses, and even taxes.  Now isn’t that great?  If you don’t have any debts to pay, life insurance proceeds can be part of the money in your will which you can give to your children as well.

If you want to create your very own financial plan, or if you’re a company who wants to educate their employees on the importance of saving and investing or if you’re planning to create a retirement plan for your employees,  the financial planning seminar offers valuable and sound advice and it’s for FREE.

If you’re interested or have any questions, leave a comment. 🙂

Happy weekend to everyone!


Learnings from BPI Trade’s 2014 Year-End Conference Part 2

This is the second part of the article, Learnings from BPI Trade’s 2014 Year-end Conference, where I will be covering Tony Herbosa and Salve Duplito.  This is not meant to be a summary of everything that was discussed, but simply a reflection of the things I’ve learned from the distinguished speakers.

What I learned from Tony Herbosa


Tony is the founder of the 10,000 strong Traders Apprentice Pilipinas (TAP) and has been a trader for more than two decades already. He was previously the CEO of PNB Capital.

Of all the speakers, it was Tony’s presentation which I found hard to grasp because of my investor mentality since he was talking from a trader’s perspective.  Before, I never would have thought of setting aside “play” money for trading because it was our hard-earned savings I’m putting into the market, but I’m hoping even old dogs can learn new tricks.  I do see the wisdom in his words, it was just that my mind had its biases at that time so I apologize, because I know I haven’t done him justice in this article since stock market trading was a foreign concept to me and I wasn’t able to absorb everything that he said.

1. What is TAP?  As Tony put it, it is a mentoring program, because without a mentor, you’ll just listen to anybody.  Ever since the conference, my husband has started following Tony and it’s been quite educational for us.  Their lingo’s quite funny, with terms like SUBARU (for basura stocks), BOBO (buy on breakout), etc.  Still don’t know what the terms mean since we haven’t attended their seminars, but we’re planning to, within the next quarter.

2. Think non-linear.  Be like water.  While TAP is a mentoring program, at the end of the day, you must have a strategy.  In stock trading, don’t expect a one size fits all strategy to work for all stocks.  Look at the waves

3.  It’s not what you buy, it’s also how you buy because even good stocks have their bad days and bad stocks have their good days.  That’s why he doesn’t give a direct answer when you ask him what stocks to pick, because to him, it’s about riding the waves, be it from a good or bad stock.  It’s also not enough to say you had a 200% or 50% return, you have to consider the volume as well.  What if the 200% return was only for stocks worth P10,000 pesos versus the 50% return on a P100,000 pesos.  Which is the winner here?  It’s clearly the second one.  Because of volume, he doesn’t really advocate having a portfolio since your losses will negate your profit from the good stocks.  Yes, you can start with 4 or 5 stocks but watch them closely and  dispose those non-performing stocks so you can build on your good stocks.

While this was hard for me to digest, I knew he has a point here. I hate seeing a mix of red (loss) and greens (profit) in my trading account, wishing they were all green, because the reds just pull down my profits.

What I learned from Salve Duplito


Salve is the financial advisor in ANC’s On the Money Show.  As the last speaker,  there were topics which she discussed that were similar to the topics covered by Marvin, so I’ll just highlight those that were new to me:

1.If you want to speculate, just use 10% of your money for that and resist the urge to add.  Chances are, if we see our trading portfolio in green, we’d we tempted to allocate more to it.  Don’t, if you can’t bear the risk.  Maintain the balance you want to strike between being a trader and investor.

2. Mister Market vs the Intelligent Investor.  This is an allegory of Benjamin Graham (the father of value investing, author of The Intelligent Investor, and teacher of Warren Buffett), , which underlies the fact that mister market (referring to the stock market itself) will always quote you buy and sell pries, sometimes, they’re expensive while at times they can be low when the market is depressed.  The goal is not to be swayed by mister market because you are an intelligent investor.  Don’t be afraid by market volatility, instead use it to your advantage to find value stocks.

3. Invest with a margin of safety.  Again, this assumes that you are an intelligent investor, which is the same as buying a value stock, which is a stock that is priced below its true value or at a discount. What is the right price? Look at the company earnings and identify its intrinsic value.
This concludes my 2-part article.  Hope you learned something from it.

Learnings from BPI Trade’s 2014 Year-End Conference Part 1

Learnings from BPI Trade’s 2014 Year-End Conference Part 1


This article is about what I learned from BPI Trade’s Push Mo Yan Year-End Conference last November 2014.  It’s not a summary of everything that the speakers said, just those things which had an impression on me.  It was my first trade conference and I’m glad I signed up for it even if it meant shelling out Php 750 for a VIP seat.  It was still a bargain given that it included morning snacks, lunch, a free book (Stock Smarts by Marvin Germo),and a better seat compared to the Php500 seat at the back which didn’t come with a free book.  I allocated this expense to my education fund, since I  had a number of takeaways from it.  When it was over, my husband and I agreed that the Php750 charge was probably just to cover the expense, which is why I like BPI Trade.:)

To do each speaker justice, I’ll break this article in two parts.  The first part will include my learnings from  best-selling author Marvin Germo and BPI Securities’ very own Mike Oyson, while the second part will be from TAP (Traders Apprentice Pilipinas) Maestro Tony Herbosa and ANC’s On the Money host Salve Duplito.

With its lineup of speakers, the conference provided a wholistic and balanced perspective since each of them covered different topics.  Marvin provided a background of the stock market in general and gave advice on what do when deciding whether to buy or sell a stock.  Mike talked about stock market investing while Tony discussed stock market trading.  Lastly, Salve talked about the purpose of wealth and social responsibility.

Stock Market Trading vs Stock Market Investing

Before I begin, I’d like to differentiate a stock market trader and investor, as I have made this distinction above.  A trader is one who buys and sells, hoping to gain from price volatility.  He’s the one who’s constantly monitoring the market, looking at his computer all day, doing technical analysis.  To him, it’s about timing so he can buy low and sell high.  An investor buys and holds the stocks for a longer period of time, hoping to gain from price appreciation and dividends.  He’s in the market for the long haul and looks at the market and company fundamentals.  To him, it’s about time and compounding.

A few words of caution: please do your research (read, read, read if you don’t have a background on the stock market) if you want to get started.  Don’t be swayed by greed and what others say, because more often than not, newcomers who lose their money get burned, leave the money and never come back.  It would be foolhardy to think that stock prices will always go up.  Know your risk appetite.  Define your goals and time horizon. There are online trading platforms which allow you to simulate trading, if you just want to get the hang of it.  You buy and sell stocks at their current prices real time but don’t lose or gain if the prices fall/rise. It’s just simulation, which should give you experience on how to keep your emotions in place.

What I learned from Marvin Germo

Marvin’s a Registered Financial Planner and author of several stock market related books which have become best sellers in National Book Store.   He also trades, writes, and has appeared in national television promoting financial freedom.
1. The Philippine stock exchange market is dominated by foreign funds.  Our market goes down when they pull out their money by selling stocks and it goes up when there’s a high volume of foreign buying. This is because less than 1% of the population is investing in the stock market. At around 100million Filipinos , that equates to only 1 million Filipinos trading and investing in Philippine equities. That’s why financial literacy programs are a must in our country,  because while the stock market is quite volatile with its ups and downs, it provides better returns than the usual saving instruments in the bank.  On the average, since the late 1920’s, despite the volatility, the market has provided a 15% annual return.
2. Invest methodically. You must have an entry (price at which you buy) and exit (price at which you sell) strategies when you trade or invest. You have to leave the emotions out the door whenever you do prework (aka research) when  deciding to buy or sell.  Why?  Because we are irrational decision makers in the stock market. We buy when everybody’s buying but by that time, the stock has become too expensive. That might be because we dont really know what to do and that’s why we just join the bandwagon.  Remember law of supply and demand? The greater the drmand, the greater the price.
3. How do you select stocks?
First, follow where the government is going. Where is it spending money on? Check out those companies which are involved in PPPs (public private partnerships). These are the private corporations (Ayala, San Miguel, Metro Pacific, etc) with government contracts to build infrastructure ( e.g. roads, expressways) and provide services to the public.
Second, read so you’ll know what’s in the news today.  Any mergers and acquitions?  What company is aggressively expanding in the market?
4. Do ratio analysis on the company. Check the return on equity for its profitability, debt equity ratio for its leverage, price earnings ratio to identify it it’s cheap or not, and current ratio for its liquidity.  You also need to check if the company is in a growing industry and if the government puts money in it.

What I learned from Mike Oyson
Mike Oyson is the Chief Executive Officer of BPI Securities.
1. Push vs pull. This analogy is similar to the first point discussed by Marvin. Push relates to foreign funds, money from the outside going inside. Pull is the opposite, which is local money being put into the market.
2. Buy when people are scared and sell when people are confident. Really like this advice from Mike,especially since I still consider myself a newbie in the market even though I’ve had a BPI trade account since 2009, because it was only in 2014 when I started focusing and building my stock portfolio. I still don’t know how to do fundamental and technical analysis, so I read and choose my stocks based on BPI Trade’s reports and Bo Sanchez’s Truly Rich Club stock updates which is from COL’s research.

3. If you want to know how expensive a stock is, look at its price earnings ratio.  That’s the ratio of the price share to its earnings per share.  The higher the PE ratio is, the more expensive the stock is.  It is also your payback period in years, which is the time it will take for you to earn what you invested.  Jollibee with a PE ratio of +40 is one of the most expensive stocks in the market.
4. “The party is not yet over. It’s still 11pm”.   When I first heard that, I said huh?  I didn’t know he was talking about the bull run and how we can still ride the waves.  Til the clock strikes at 12am, we can still profit from the market.  When is 12am?  In our case, it’s the next presidential election.  So what are you waiting for?  There’s still more than 12 months left.

5. This is where it gets interesting.  His stock picks are backed by data gathered by BPI Trade’s analysts. For the bull run, the sectors which are said to outperform the market are consumer, power, and gaming, while banks, property, and telco are said to be bearish. Not saying that the other sectors are bad, just that not all stocks are created equal.  If you want to benefit from the current bull run, go for those sectors. Why?  Our economy’s growing and its mostly consumption-driven. Power companies have been increasing their capacity with the numerous power plants being built.  Gaming resorts (Solaire, City of Dreams, etc) will also benefit from integration and the new roadways being built to connect them with NAIA.  On the other hand,  the bearish outlook for banks is due to tighter BSP regulation, for telcos it’s the stiff competition (hurray for us consumers!), and for real estate, it’s the saturation of the condominium developments, albeit those which have horizonal projects (not high rise condominiums) are said to benefit from the bull run, especially MEG (Megaworld).

Apart from what has been said above, he also gave out stock recommendations, placing them in different categories.

a. Long term – these are blue chips which you can buy and hold, or better yet do peso cost averaging. These are the “pamana” stocks which you can leave for your family. Examples are TEL, ALI, GLO, AC, JFC, SM, URC, DMC.

b. Rising – these are stocks which have a huge potential due to their aggressive business strategies.  URC for one has been forging partnerships with international food companies. Megaworld has a huge landbank and is developing several townships to cater to the growing BPO industry. DNL is the oil supplier of Krispy Kreme, Max’s fried chicken etc (didn’t really know that at all). Examples are URC, MEG, RRHI, ICT, DNL, PGOLD, VLL.
c.Value – these are stocks which are priced lower than their historical levels or just lower than their peers in the same segment, but are fundamentally sound . Examples are VLL, MEG, TA, MERB.
d. Cameo – analogous to cameo appearances which are quick in nature, cameo stocks are companies which are seen to be profitable in the short run.  Good example is BLOOM & MCP. These can move to rising category depending on their performance.
e. Mainstay – these are your dividend or income stocks. Examples are GLO, TEL,AP, AEV, SCC,DMC, so if you’re the person who wants to constantly receive passive/ fixed income, these are your stocks.

Mike also briefly discussed the Minsky Model and Theory of Reflexivity, which are theories on the financial markets.  I googled them and found them quite technical so I won’t discuss them in detail here.

Presently, I’m more of an investor than a trader and that’s why I really liked Mike Oyson’s input.  I’d also like to have a mix of “play” money someday, when I already have a strong base to do technical analysis, but till then I’ll continue to buy stocks that are fundamentally sound, those which allow me to sleep well at night as Marvin Germo put it.

Why I decided to be a financial adviser

There are only two reasons.  First is because I wanted to have the freedom to do what I want with my own time.  After ten years of working the corporate life, I really don’t see myself cooped up in an office for the next thirty years.  I guess everybody who’s worked has felt that way. So how I did know I could be one?  It was when my sister asked me to check her life insurance proposal mid last year.  I evaluated the projected returns using the annuity formula, which allows you to compute the future value of annual payments made of a period of time given an interest rate (a good and common example would be loan payments or even those painful tax deductions).  Ever since I’ve learned that formula, I have used it to calculate the future value of my investments in mutual funds and stocks, which I put money into every month.  That’s also probably why I’m frugal, because I’m very much aware of the opportunity cost when I buy things that lose their value over time.

Second reason, I didn’t know it at first and it’s the people who I’ve talked to that have pointed this out but I’m really quite passionate about personal finance.  I’d rather talk about how my stocks are doing than gossip about local celebrities.  I’d rather read books and listen to people who talk about business and how to make more money than talk about the latest fashion trends.  I guess I’m geeky that way.  That has inevitably translated to how I spend and look at money. I’ve always been the practical one. My phone is pretty basic (never owned an Apple and the only Samsung I had was the one handed down to me by my brother) but I do splurge on footwear since comfort is a priority to me.  I have clothes which have been with me since high school and college (either because of sentimental reasons, they just fit me, or are just too comfy to let go). As for my bonuses, I just spend 10-20% on my wants while the rest would go to my financial freedom account (insurance, mutual funds and stocks).  I know that will all change when I have a baby of my own, and that’s exactly the reason why I’m maximizing my savings now.

Five months into it and all I can say is, it’s damn hard because it doesn’t mesh with another side of me: my shy side (haha!).  I don’t like approaching people and selling to them.  What I do like about it is that I get a chance to share my thoughts on savings, investments, stock markets, etc.   What I do like about it are the number of trainings I’m able to attend about the stock market and investments in general, especially those held by Sunlife’s very own fund managers and tenured unit managers. I know that if I were to make it here, I’d have to thicken my skin, and that’s quite a challenge for me.

To me, being a financial adviser is not just about selling life insurance.  It’s about educating the ordinary man how he can move out of the rat race to achieve financial security and freedom.  It’s about teaching them to plan and save for the rainy days.  It’s about changing their mindset about money.  After all, schools didn’t teach us about money, which is why many Filipinos are financially illiterate and struggle financially.  More than just being a salesman, it’s a service rendered by every financial freedom advocate out there.  If you’d like to be a  Sunlife financial advisor, let me know.  There’s a business opportunity forum at Sunlife Bonifacio Global City office next Saturday, February 28, 2015.

My Take: Seven bright choices you can make today for a brighter tomorrow

I’m featuring this personal finance article from Sunlife’s brighter life website because I like its graphics and since the content is lacking in detail, I’m sharing my thoughts :


1. Set goals- The goals you set have to be SMART: specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, and time-bound.  For example, it’s not just enough to say I want to retire comfortably, I want to travel, I want to build a college fund for my child, or I want to buy a house.  You have to define what a comfortable life is for you. If that means living the same way you do right now, then use your current monthly expenses as your reference and multiply that with the number of years you expect to leave after you retire.  You have consider the rate of inflation in your computation.  For your travel fund,  don’t you do research and compare prices on the cost of airplane tickets, accommodation, tours and attractions? The same applies when planning to purchase  your dream house. Various factors come into play such as location, size and number of rooms, if you’re buying from a developer so you get to enjoy a few amenities, the amount of equity you need to shell out and the monthly amortization you can afford for bank financing, etc.  In building your child’s college fund, you have to know the tuition fees by the time your child enters college and save up for that amount.  You want them to go to top universities twenty years from now?  Below table shows Sunlife’s projections on college fees of top universities in five to twenty years from now, at a 12.25% rate of increase (the rate of increase per CHED’s 2008 data).

tuition1 tuition2

You need to plan, prioritize, and be specific in what you want because there are so many things to consider.  If you’re keen on knowing how much you need to save and invest for your dreams, you can use Sunlife’s dream calculator,  It’s very easy and simple.  First, you have to select the dream you’re prioritizing: own a car, build a home, open a business, travel abroad, or setting up  retirement or college fund.  Once that’s done, you have to input how much you need, how many years you plan to save and invest for that goal, and how much you have saved already.  It will then calculate how much you need to save monthly when you put your money in a bank account versus other financial instruments such as mutual funds, variable-unit linked insurance (VUL), stocks, etc.


2. Begin a saving habit. T. Harv Eker suggests a jar system of money management.  It’s called a jar system because it’s a method of allocating one’s money, much like putting money into different jars which serve different needs and taking money from that jar to fund that specific need.  Once money from that jar is depleted, you stop spending and don’t take money from other jars.  The five categories are necessities, financial freedom, education, long term saving for spending, play, and give.


55% of your income goes to NECESSITIES like rent, mortgage, utilities, food, taxes, or anything that you need to LIVE.  10% goes to your FINANCIAL FREEDOM account which is used for investments and building passive income to make you financially independent. You DO NOT SPEND money on this jar, never. 10% goes to your EDUCATION account for your personal growth.  Benjamin Franklin once said, investment in knowledge pays the best interest. Your growth in either work or business is limited to what you know, whether you’re a CEO, doctor, accountant, or a businessman, you have to continuously upgrade your skills.  This is not limited to formal education like getting a masteral or doctoral degree, it could also be seminars, conferences, or trade fairs you can learn from. 10% goes to LONG TERM SAVING for SPENDING account which is used to bigger expenses that you need to save up for like a house, education fund,  renovations, appliances, or trips. 10% goes to your PLAY account to reward yourself, like a spa treatment or dinner at an expensive restaurant because you need to pay yourself and enjoy your money now.  Lastly, 5% goes to your GIVE account. You could increase this to 10% if you are tithing, or you can just give it to a charity, or to help out a friend or neighbor.

This is the recommended breakdown but of course this varies for everyone.  For someone who earns a lot, the percentage for necessities could be smaller and there’s a bigger weight on the rest of the jars.  For an average-income earner, necessities may take up as much as 60-70%.  What you have to remember is that customizing your own jar system takes times and may require a few tweaks along the way as your needs or lifestage.

3. An emergency fund is a crucial aspect of risk management.  This is what you use if there’s an unexpected incident which requires you to shell out money for the short term.  This could be a temporary job loss/sickness/ market slowdown which deters you from earning the same rate of income for 1-6 months, or there’s a need to repair the house due to natural calamities.  This fund should be at least 3-6 months of your monthly expenses and put in liquid assets like a savings account or money market instruments, not in stocks or mutual funds, which are prone to fluctuations.  You don’t know when emergencies will arise and you don’t want to be cashing in your stocks when prices are down, just because you need the money.  That will just make the paper loss real.

4. I’ve already emphasized the importance of both a life insurance (and a health plan) on my first article about risk management so I’ll just keep this short.  Anybody who has anybody depending on them requires a life insurance.  This is to ensure that whoever gets left behind has something to continue living.  True, we all face risk everyday and the chance of you encountering an accident maybe small, but the probability of it happening is still there.  When you buy a car or a house, don’t you get insurance for these non-life assets, because you’ve worked hard for it?  In the same way, haven’t you also shed tears and sweat over the years to be where you are right now because you want a better life for yourself and family?  Without you, who would take care of your family?

5. Inflation rate in the Philippines ranges between 3-6%.  To beat it you need to earn at least 4-7%, otherwise, you’re just losing the value of your money.  What does that mean? My mom told me that at her first job in the 1970’s her monthly salary was three hundred pesos and you can already have a decent snack at one peso.  Nowadays, you can’t buy anything with just one peso and three hundred pesos is gone in a matter of days, or hours or minutes, depending on your standard of living. We need to beat inflation because we have specific needs and dreams we want to achieve over a specific time.  If you’re saving for a 3 million pesos condominium which you want to move into 3 years from now, saving 1 million pesos for three years is not enough because the value of the condo will increase and you’ll fall short.  Before you decide where to put your money, remember that you have to match your time horizon with the asset. If it’s a short term need, say you’re getting married next year, put your wedding fund in liquid assets so you can access them when you need to.  If it’s a long term goal, then put your money in stocks, bonds, or mutual funds, and even variable-unit linked insurance, which historically have yielded above inflation returns.


6. If you don’t have a clue how to start your journey towards financial freedom, you can go to financial planning websites such as Flexscore (  It analyzes where you are now financially and advises you on the steps you need to take to be financially independent. The goal is to have a score of 1,000 to be financially independent.

flexscorebreakdown  yguz2dwtpytp5abs8ihx

If this is too intimidating for you (as it requires you to input the amount of savings you have or life insurance coverage and other personal financial details), you can also consult with financial advisors (from banks or insurance companies) or hire a registered financial planner.  If you’re financially literate and can create a plan for yourself, all the better, just remember that a good financial plan begins with a self-check and continuous monitoring.  Personal financial plans are available in the internet, which you can use as reference in drafting your own.

7. Lastly, you have to be disciplined to persevere in carrying out your financial plan.  Wealth is built over a long period of time, not in a day.


Stock Smarts Seminar by Marvin Germo in Davao City

To my friends and family in Davao City, I’m encouraging you to attend the Stock Smarts Seminar by Marvin Germo on November 28-29 at Lispher Inn.

Last week during BPI Trade’s year end conference, I had a chance to listen to Marvin aka Mister Stock Smarts.  Marvin is a stock market trader, analyst, Registered Financial Planner, BPI Trade’s brand ambassador, and also an advocate of financial literacy. He’s been featured in tv shows, talking about topics ranging from personal finance to stock trading and investing.  You can check out his personal blog if you want to know more about his work ,

Why should you go? Because NOW is a good time to be in the stock market.  There’s a bullish outlook on our stock market and this is expected to continue until 2015 or 2016 (depending on the president). If you’re still hesitant, I suggest you go to National Book Store, skim through his book, and assess if you can learn from him. Don’t deny yourself the opportunity to learn, especially from something that could set you financially free.  As Benjamin Franklin once said, “If you think education is expensive, try ignorance.”